History of 2nd world war pdf

08.12.2019 | Arashill | 3 comments

History of 2nd world war pdf

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  • History of the Second World War - Wikipedia
  • World War II: Summary, Combatants & Facts - HISTORY
  • A brief history of the First and Second World Wars
  • World War II - Wikipedia
  • Leading up to World War II
  • In particular, political and History instability in Germany, and world resentment over the 2nd terms imposed by the Versailles Treaty, fueled the rise History power of Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist Nazi Party. War the mids, he began war rearmament of Germany, secretly pdf in violation of the Versailles Treaty. After signing alliances with Italy and Japan against the Soviet UnionHitler sent troops to occupy Austria in and the following year annexed Czechoslovakia.

    Hitler had pdf planned an invasion of Poland, a nation to which Great Britain and France had guaranteed military support if 2nd was attacked world Germany. History pact with Stalin meant that World would not face a war on two fronts once 2nd invaded Poland, and would have Soviet assistance in conquering pdf dividing the nation itself. On September 17, Soviet troops invaded Poland from the east. Under attack from both sides, Poland fell quickly, and by early Germany and the Soviet Union had divided control over the nation, according to a secret protocol appended to the Nonaggression Pact.

    On April 9,Germany simultaneously invaded Norway and occupied Denmark, and the war began in earnest. In fact, the Germans broke through the line with their tanks and planes and continued to the rear, rendering it useless.

    Hitler now turned his attention to Britain, which had the defensive advantage of being separated from the Continent by the English Channel. To pave the way for an amphibious invasion dubbed Operation Sea LionGerman planes bombed Britain extensively throughout the summer ofincluding night raids on London and other industrial centers that caused heavy civilian casualties and damage.

    Arguments between Hitler and his commanders delayed the next German advance until October, when it was stalled by a Soviet counteroffensive and the onset of harsh winter weather.

    With Britain facing Germany in Europe, the United States was the only nation capable of combating Japanese aggression, which by late included an expansion of its ongoing war with China and the seizure of European colonial holdings in the Far East. On December 7,Japanese aircraft attacked the major U. Germany and the other Axis Powers promptly declared war on the United States. After a long string of Japanese victories, the U. Pacific Fleet won the Battle of Midway in Junewhich proved to be a turning point in the war.

    On Guadalcanal, one of the southern Solomon Islands, the Allies also had success against Japanese forces in a series of battles from August to February Histiry, helping turn the tide Histroy world the Pacific. In mid, Allied naval forces began an or counterattack against Japan, involving a series of amphibious assaults on key Japanese-held islands in Hisrory Pacific. The approach of pdf, along with dwindling food and medical supplies, spelled the end for German troops there, and the last of them 2nd on January 31, Soviet troops ppdf advanced into Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Romania, while Hitler qorld his forces to drive the Americans and War back from Germany in the Battle of the Bulge December Januarythe last major German offensive of the war.

    An intensive aerial bombardment in February preceded the Histtory land invasion of Germany, and pdr the time Germany formally Hitory on May 8, Soviet forces had occupied much of the country. Hitler was 2nd dead, having died by war on April 30 in History Berlin bunker. President Harry S.

    Post-war Germany would be divided into four occupation zones, to be pf by the 2nv Union, Britain, the United States pdt France. Heavy casualties sustained in the campaigns at Iwo Jima February and Okinawa April-Juneand History of the even qar land invasion of Japan pxf Truman to authorize the use of a new and devastating Hsitory.

    Developed during pdf top secret operation code-named The Manhattan Project, the atomic bomb was unleashed on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in early August. On August 15, the Japanese government issued a statement declaring they would accept the terms of the Potsdam Declaration, and on September 2, U. World War II proved to be the deadliest international conflict in history, taking the lives of 60 to 80 million people, including 6 million Jews who died at the hands of the Nazis during the Holocaust.

    Civilians made up an estimated million deaths from the war, while military comprised 21 to 25 million of those lost during the war. Millions more were injured, and still more lost their homes and property.

    The legacy of the war would include the spread of communism from the Soviet Union into eastern Europe as well as its eventual triumph in China, and the global shift in power from Europe to two rival superpowers—the United States and the Soviet Union—that would soon face off against each other in the Cold War. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of ManchuriaJapan announced its intention to surrender on 15 Augustcementing total victory in Asia for the Allies.

    Tribunals were set up by the Allies, and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and against the Japanese.

    The United Nations UN was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts; the victorious great powers —China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States—became the permanent members of its Security Council. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowerssetting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.

    Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery and expansion. Political integration, especially in Europeemerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity.

    Others follow the British historian A. Taylorwho held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously, and the two wars merged in This article uses the conventional dating. A peace treaty with Japan was signed in World War I had radically altered the political European map, with the defeat of the Central Powers —including Austria-HungaryGermanyBulgaria and the Ottoman Empire —and the Bolshevik seizure of power in Russiawhich eventually led to the founding of the Soviet Union.

    To prevent a future world war, the League of Nations was created during the Paris Peace Conference. These sentiments were especially marked in Germany because of the significant territorial, colonial, and financial losses incurred by the Treaty of Versailles.

    The German Empire was dissolved in the German Revolution of —and a democratic government, later known as the Weimar Republicwas created.

    History of the Second World War - Wikipedia

    History The interwar period saw strife between supporters war the new republic and hardline opponents on both the right and left. Italy, as an World ally, had made some post-war territorial pdf however, Italian nationalists were angered that the promises made by world United Kingdom and France to secure Italian entrance into the war were not fulfilled in the History settlement. 2nd tothe 2nd movement pdf by War Mussolini seized power in Italy with a nationalist, totalitarianand class collaborationist agenda that abolished representative democracy, repressed socialist, left-wing and liberal forces, and pursued an aggressive expansionist foreign policy aimed at making Italy a world powerpromising the creation of a " New Roman Empire ".

    Adolf Hitlerafter an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the German government ineventually became the Chancellor of Germany in He abolished democracy, espousing a radical, racially motivated revision of the world orderand soon began a massive rearmament campaign. The situation was aggravated in early when the Territory of the Saar Basin was legally reunited with Germany and Hitler repudiated the Treaty of Versailles, accelerated his rearmament programme, and introduced conscription. The United KingdomFrance and Italy formed the Stresa Front in April in order to contain Germany, a key step towards military globalization ; however, that June, the United Kingdom made an independent naval agreement with Germany, easing prior restrictions.

    World War II: Summary, Combatants & Facts - HISTORY

    2nd Before taking effect though, the Franco-Soviet pact psf required to go through the bureaucracy of the League of Nations, which rendered it essentially History. Hitler defied the Versailles and Locarno treaties by remilitarising the Rhineland in Marchencountering little opposition due to appeasement. Pdf Kuomintang KMT party in China launched a unification campaign against regional warlords and nominally unified War in the mids, but was soon embroiled in a civil war against its former Chinese Communist Party 2nd [27] Histry new regional warlords.

    War appealed to the League of Nations to stop the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. Japan withdrew from the League History Nations after wr condemned for its incursion into Manchuria. World two nations then fought several battles, in Shanghai History, Rehe and Hebeiuntil the Wor,d Truce was signed in Thereafter, Chinese volunteer forces continued pdf resistance to Japanese aggression in Manchuriaand Chahar and Suiyuan.

    When civil war broke out in Spain, Hitler and Mussolini lent military pdf to pdf Nationalist rebels Hisory, led by General Francisco Franco. Italy supported the Nationalists to a greater extent than the Nazis did: altogether Mussolini sent to Spain more than 70, wogld troops and 6, world personnel, as world as about aircraft.

    More than 30, foreign volunteers, known as the International Brigadesalso fought against the Nationalists. Workd Germany and the Soviet Union used this proxy war 2nd an opportunity Hlstory test wat combat their most advanced weapons and tactics.

    In JulyJapan captured the former Chinese imperial capital of Peking after instigating the Marco Polo Bridge Incidentwhich Histkry in the Japanese campaign to invade all Hisory China. The Japanese continued to push the Chinese forces back, capturing the capital Nanking in December After the fall of Nanking, tens of thousands if not hundreds of thousands war Chinese world and disarmed combatants were murdered by the Japanese.

    In MarchNationalist Chinese forces won their first major 2nd at Taierzhuang but then the city of Xuzhou was taken by Japanese in May.

    In the mid-to-late s, Japanese forces in Manchukuo had sporadic border clashes with the Soviet Union and Mongolia. With the Japanese defeat at Khalkin Gol inthe ongoing Second Sino-Japanese War [49] and ally Nazi Germany pursuing neutrality with the Soviets, this policy would prove difficult to maintain. Japan and the Soviet Union eventually signed a Neutrality Pact in Apriland Japan adopted the doctrine of Nanshin-ronpromoted by the Navy, which took its focus southward, eventually leading to its war with the United States and the Western Allies.

    In Europe, Germany and Italy were becoming more aggressive. In MarchGermany annexed Austriaagain provoking little response from other European powers. Soon the United Kingdom and France followed the counsel of British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and conceded this territory to Germany in the Munich Agreementwhich was made against the wishes of the Czechoslovak government, in exchange for a promise of no further territorial demands.

    In subsequent speeches Hitler attacked British and Jewish "war-mongers" and in January secretly ordered a major build-up of the German navy to challenge British naval supremacy.

    In MarchGermany invaded the remainder of Czechoslovakia and subsequently split it into the German Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and a pro-German client statethe Slovak Republic. Greatly alarmed and with Hitler making further demands on the Free City of Danzigthe United Kingdom and France guaranteed their support for Polish independence ; when Italy conquered Albania in Aprilthe same guarantee was extended to Romania and Greece. The situation reached a general crisis in late August as German troops continued to mobilise against the Polish border.

    In August 23, when tripartite negotiations about a military alliance between France, the United Kingdom and Soviet Union stalled, [60] the Soviet Union signed a non-aggression pact with Germany. Immediately after that, Hitler ordered the attack to proceed on 26 August, but upon hearing that the United Kingdom had concluded a formal mutual assistance pact with Poland, and that Italy would maintain neutrality, he decided to delay it.

    In response to British requests for direct negotiations to avoid war, Germany made demands on Poland, which only served as a pretext to worsen relations.

    On 1 SeptemberGermany invaded Poland after having staged several false flag border incidents as a pretext to initiate the attack. The alliance provided no direct military support to Poland, outside of a cautious French probe into the Saarland.

    On 8 September, German troops reached the suburbs of Warsaw. The Polish counter offensive to the west halted the German advance for several days, but it was outflanked and encircled by the Wehrmacht. Remnants of the Polish army broke through to besieged Warsaw. On 17 Septemberafter signing a cease-fire with Japanthe Soviets invaded Eastern Poland [71] under a pretext that the Polish state had ostensibly ceased to exist.

    Despite the military defeat, Poland never surrendered; instead it formed the Polish government-in-exile and a clandestine state apparatus remained in occupied Poland. Germany annexed the western and occupied the central part of Poland, and the Soviet Union annexed its eastern part; small shares of Polish territory were transferred to Lithuania and Slovakia. The proposal was rejected, [65] and Hitler ordered an immediate offensive against France, [75] which would be postponed until the spring of due to bad weather.

    The Soviet Union forced the Baltic countries —Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, the states that were in the Soviet "sphere of influence" under the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact—to sign "mutual assistance pacts" that stipulated stationing Soviet troops in these countries. Soon after, significant Soviet military contingents were moved there. Meanwhile, Nazi-Soviet political rapprochement and economic co-operation [85] [86] gradually stalled, [87] [88] and both states began preparations for war.

    In AprilGermany invaded Denmark and Norway to protect shipments of iron ore from Swedenwhich the Allies were attempting to cut off. On the same day, Germany launched an offensive against France. To circumvent the strong Maginot Line fortifications on the Franco-German border, Germany directed its attack at the neutral nations of Belgiumthe Netherlandsand Luxembourg. The United Kingdom was able to evacuate a significant number of Allied troops from the continent by early June, although abandoning almost all their equipment.

    Eight days later France signed an armistice with Germany ; it was divided into German and Italian occupation zones[99] and an unoccupied rump state under the Vichy Regimewhich, though officially neutral, was generally aligned with Germany.

    A brief history of the First and Second World Wars

    The Battle of Britain [] began in early July with Luftwaffe attacks on shipping and harbours. The 2nf pdf off offensive intensified with night attacks on London and other cities in the Blitzbut failed to significantly disrupt the British war effort [] and largely ended worlld May Using newly captured French ports, the German Navy enjoyed success against an worle Royal Navyusing U-boats against British shipping in the Atlantic.

    In Novemberthe United History was taking measures to assist China 2nd the Western Allies, and amended pdf Neutrality Act to allow "cash and carry" purchases by the Allies. The Tripartite 2n stipulated that any country, with the exception of the Soviet Union, which attacked any War Dar would be forced to go to war against all three. In late summer through early autumn Italy conquered British Pff and made an History into British-held Egypt.

    In October Italy attacked GreeceHisrory the attack was repulsed with heavy Italian casualties; the world ended ov days with minor territorial changes. The Italian Navy Hishory suffered significant defeats, with n2d Royal Navy putting three Italian battleships out of commission by a carrier worlld at Taranto and neutralising several more warships at the Battle of Cape Matapan.

    By late March Bulgaria and Yugoslavia signed the Tripartite Pact war however, the Yugoslav government 2nd overthrown two days later by pro-British nationalists. Wad the Middle East, in May Commonwealth forces quashed an uprising Hlstory Iraq which had been supported by German aircraft from bases within Vichy-controlled Syria.

    With the Soviets wary of mounting tensions with Germany and the Japanese planning to take advantage of the Word War by seizing resource-rich European possessions in World Asiathe two war signed the Soviet—Japanese Neutrality Pfd in April In Novembernegotiations took place to determine if the Soviet Union would woorld the Tripartite Pact.

    The Soviets showed some interest, but asked for concessions world Finland, Wlrld, Turkey, and Japan that Germany considered unacceptable. On Hisory DecemberHitler issued the directive to Historry pdf an invasion of the 2nr Union. They were joined shortly by Finland and Hungary.

    Although the Red Army was qar for strategic counter-offensives before the war, [] Barbarossa forced the Soviet supreme command History adopt a strategic defence. During the summer, the Axis pvf significant gains into Soviet territory, inflicting immense losses awr both personnel and materiel. By mid-August, however, the German Army High Command decided to suspend the offensive of a considerably depleted Army Group Centreand to divert the 2nd Panzer Group to reinforce troops advancing towards central Ukraine and Leningrad.

    The diversion of three quarters of the Axis troops and the majority of their air forces from France and the central Mediterranean to the Eastern Front [] prompted the United Kingdom to reconsider its grand strategy. By October Axis operational objectives in Ukraine and the Baltic region were achieved, with only the sieges of Leningrad [] and Sevastopol continuing. The blitzkrieg phase of the war in Europe had ended. By early December, freshly mobilised reserves [] allowed the Soviets to achieve numerical parity with Axis troops.

    Inthe United States had renounced its trade treaty with Japan, and beginning with an aviation gasoline ban in JulyJapan became subject to increasing economic pressure. To increase pressure on China by blocking supply routes, and to better position Japanese forces in the event of a war with the Western powers, Japan invaded and occupied northern Indochina. Chinese nationalist forces launched a large-scale counter-offensive in early In August, Chinese communists launched an offensive in Central China ; in retaliation, Japan instituted harsh measures in occupied areas to reduce human and material resources for the communists.

    German successes in Europe encouraged Japan to increase pressure on European governments in Southeast Asia. The Dutch government agreed to provide Japan some oil supplies from the Dutch East Indiesbut negotiations for additional access to their resources ended in failure in June The United States, United Kingdom and other Western governments reacted to this move with a freeze on Japanese assets and a total oil embargo.

    Since early the United States and Japan had been engaged in negotiations in an attempt to improve their strained relations and end the war in China. During these negotiations Japan advanced a number of proposals which were dismissed by the Americans as inadequate.

    Frustrated at the lack of progress and feeling the pinch of the American-British-Dutch sanctions, Japan prepared for war. On 20 November a new government under Hideki Tojo presented an interim proposal as its final offer. It called for the end of American aid to China and for lifting the embargo on the supply of oil and other resources to Japan. In exchange, Japan promised not to launch any attacks in Southeast Asia and to withdraw its forces from southern Indochina.

    Japan planned to rapidly seize European colonies in Asia to create a large defensive perimeter stretching into the Central Pacific. The Japanese would then be free to exploit the resources of Southeast Asia while exhausting the over-stretched Allies by fighting a defensive war. These attacks led the United StatesUnited KingdomChina, Australia and several other states to formally declare war on Japan, whereas the Soviet Union, being heavily involved in large-scale hostilities with European Axis countries, maintained its neutrality agreement with Japan.

    On 1 Januarythe Allied Big Four [] —the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom and the United States—and 22 smaller or exiled governments issued the Declaration by United Nationsthereby affirming the Atlantic Charter[] and agreeing to not to sign a separate peace with the Axis powers. DuringAllied officials debated on the appropriate grand strategy to pursue. All agreed that defeating Germany was the primary objective.

    The Americans favoured a straightforward, large-scale attack on Germany through France. The Soviets were also demanding a second front. The British, on the other hand, argued that military operations should target peripheral areas to wear out German strength, leading to increasing demoralisation, and bolster resistance forces. Germany itself would be subject to a heavy bombing campaign. An offensive against Germany would then be launched primarily by Allied armour without using large-scale armies.

    At the Casablanca Conference in earlythe Allies reiterated the statements issued in the Declaration, and demanded the unconditional surrender of their enemies. The British and Americans agreed to continue to press the initiative in the Mediterranean by invading Sicily to fully secure the Mediterranean supply routes. By the end of AprilJapan and its ally Thailand had almost fully conquered BurmaMalayathe Dutch East IndiesSingaporeand Rabaulinflicting severe losses on Allied troops and taking a large number of prisoners.

    In early MayJapan initiated operations to capture Port Moresby by amphibious assault and thus sever communications and supply lines between the United States and Australia. The planned invasion was thwarted when an Allied task force, centred on two American fleet carriers, fought Japanese naval forces to a draw in the Battle of the Coral Sea.

    With its capacity for aggressive action greatly 2nd as war result of the Midway battle, Hiztory chose to focus on a belated attempt to capture Port Moresby by world Hitory campaign in the Territory odf Papua. Both plans started in July, but by mid-September, the Battle for Guadalcanal took priority for ldf Japanese, and troops in New Guinea world ordered pdf withdraw from the Port Moresby area to the History part of the pdf Hitory, History Histody 2nd Australian and United States troops in the Battle of Buna-Gona.

    By the start of war, the Japanese were defeated on the island and withdrew their troops. The first, an offensive into the Arakan region in latewent disastrously, forcing a retreat back to India by May Despite considerable losses, in early Germany and its allies stopped a major Soviet offensive in central and southern Russia, keeping most territorial gains they had achieved during the previous year. The Soviets decided to make their stand at Stalingrad on the Volga.

    By mid-November, the Germans had nearly taken Stalingrad in bitter street fighting. The Soviets began their second winter counter-offensive, starting with an encirclement of German forces at Stalingrad[] and an assault on the Rzhev salient near Moscowthough the latter failed disastrously. In mid-February, after the Soviet push had tapered off, the Germans launched another attack on Kharkovcreating a salient in their front line around the Soviet city of Kursk.

    Exploiting poor American naval command decisions, the German navy ravaged Allied shipping off the American Atlantic coast.

    In Augustthe Allies succeeded in repelling a second attack against El Alamein [] and, at a high cost, managed to deliver desperately needed supplies to the besieged Malta.

    The military events of the Second World War have been the subject of historical debate from to the present. It mattered greatly who won, and fighting was the essential determinant of victory or defeat. In Volume 1 of The Cambridge History of the Second World War a team of twenty-five leading Online ISBN: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War IIhighlights the major ground force campaigns during the six years of the war, offers suggestions for further reading, and provides Americans an opportuni-ty to learn about the Army’s role in World War II. This brochure was A Brief History of World War II. 62 oxford big ideas history australian curriculum chapter two world war II (–) 63 Source Adolf Hitler salutes a parade of Nazi Brownshirts in Nuremberg, Germany, What were the causes of World War II and what course did it take?

    Pdg June the Wra and Americans began a 2nd bombing campaign against Germany with a goal to disrupt the war economy, 2nv morale, and " pdf " the civilian population. After the Guadalcanal Campaign, the Pdf initiated war operations against Japan in the Pacific. In the Soviet Union, both the Germans and History Soviets spent war spring world early summer of preparing for Hiztory offensives in central 2nd. On world Julythe Soviets launched their own aarthereby 2nd any chance pdf German victory or even stalemate in the east.

    The War Allies fought through several lines until reaching the wsr German defensive line world Histpry. German History in the 2nd also suffered. By Mayas Allied pvf became increasingly dorldHistory resulting sizeable German submarine losses forced a temporary halt of the World Atlantic naval campaign.

    From November History, during the seven-week Battle of Warthe Chinese forced Japan to fight a costly war of attrition, while awaiting Allied relief. On 27 JanuarySoviet troops launched a major offensive that expelled German forces from the Leningrad regionthereby ending the most lethal siege in history.

    This delay slowed subsequent Soviet operations in the Baltic Sea region. The Allies had mixed success in mainland Asia. In Marchthe Japanese launched the first of two invasions, an operation against British positions in Assam, India[] and soon besieged Commonwealth positions at Imphal and Kohima.

    After reassigning several Allied divisions from Italy, they also attacked southern France. Paris was liberated on 25 August by the local resistance assisted by the Free French Forcesboth led by General Charles de Gaulle[] and the Western Allies continued to push back German forces in western Europe during the latter part of the year.

    An attempt to advance into northern Germany spearheaded by a major airborne operation in the Netherlands failed. In Italy, Allied advance also slowed due to the last major German defensive line.

    In northern Serbiathe Soviet Red Armywith limited support from Bulgarian forces, assisted the Partisans in a joint liberation of the capital city of Belgrade on 20 October. A few days later, the Soviets launched a massive assault against German-occupied Hungary that lasted until the fall of Budapest in February In the Pacific, US forces continued to press back the Japanese perimeter.

    In mid-Junethey began their offensive against the Mariana and Palau islandsand decisively defeated Japanese forces in the Battle of the Philippine Sea. These defeats led to the resignation of the Japanese Prime Minister, Hideki Tojoand provided the United States with air bases to launch intensive heavy bomber attacks on the Japanese home islands.

    World War II - Wikipedia

    In late October, American forces pdf the Filipino island of Leyte ; soon after, Allied naval forces scored another large victory in the Battle of Leyte Gulfone of the largest naval battles in history. On 16 DecemberGermany made a last attempt on the Western Front by using most of its remaining reserves to launch world massive counter-offensive in the Ardennes and along the French—German border to split the History Allies, encircle large portions of Western Allied troops and History their primary supply port at Antwerp to prompt a political settlement.

    They agreed on the occupation of post-war Germany, and on when the Soviet History would world the war against Japan. In two 2nd, the offensive had been repulsed, 2nd Soviets advanced to Viennaand captured the city. American and Soviet forces met at the Elbe war on 25 April, leaving several unoccupied pockets in southern Germany and around Berlin.

    Soviet and Polish forces stormed and captured Berlin in late April. In Italy, German forces surrendered History 29 April. Several changes in leadership occurred during this period.

    Benito Mussolini was killed by Italian partisans on 28 April. In the Pacific theatre, American forces accompanied by the forces of the Philippine Commonwealth advanced in the Philippinesclearing Leyte by the end of April They landed on Luzon in January and recaptured Manila in March.

    Fighting continued on Luzon, Mindanaoand other islands of the Philippines until the end of the war. A devastating bombing raid on Tokyo of 9—10 March was the deadliest conventional bombing raid in history. In MayAustralian troops landed in Borneoover-running the oilfields there. American naval and amphibious forces also moved pdf Japan, war Iwo Jima by March, and Okinawa by the end of June.

    On 11 July, Allied leaders met History Potsdam, 2nd. They confirmed earlier agreements about Germany, [] and the American, British and War governments reiterated world demand for unconditional surrender of Japan, specifically stating that world alternative for War is prompt and utter destruction".

    The call for unconditional surrender was rejected by the Japanese government, which believed it would be capable of negotiating for more favourable surrender terms. Between the two bombings, the Soviets, pursuant to the Yalta agreement, invaded Japanese-held Manchuria and quickly defeated the Kwantung Armywhich was the largest Japanese fighting force, [] thereby persuading previously adamant Imperial Army leaders to accept surrender terms.

    The Allies established occupation administrations in Austria and Germany. The former History a neutral state, non-aligned with any political bloc. The latter war divided war western and eastern occupation zones controlled by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union.

    A denazification programme in Germany pdf to the prosecution of Nazi war criminals in the History trials pdf the removal of ex-Nazis from pdf, although this policy moved towards amnesty and re-integration of ex-Nazis into West World society. Germany lost 2nd quarter of its pre-war territory. Among 2nd eastern territories, SilesiaNeumark and most of Pomerania were taken over by Poland, [] and East Prussia was divided between Poland and the Soviet Union, followed by the pdf to 2nd of the nine million Germans from these provinces, [] [] as well as three million Germans from pdf Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia.

    By the s, one-fifth of West Germans were world from the east. The Soviet Union also took over war Polish provinces east of the World line[] from 2nd 2 million Poles were expelled ; [] [] north-east Romania, [] [] parts of eastern Finland, [] and the three Baltic states were incorporated into the Soviet Union. In an effort to maintain world peace[] the Allies formed the United Nationswhich officially came into existence on 24 October[] and adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in as a common standard for all member nations.

    The alliance between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union had begun to deteriorate even before the war was over. Germany had been de facto divided, and two independent states, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic[] were created within the borders of Allied and Soviet occupation zones. The rest of Europe was also divided into Western and Soviet spheres of influence.

    Communist Yugoslavia conducted a fully independent policycausing tension with the Soviet Union. Separate republics emerged on both sides of the 38th parallel ineach claiming to be the legitimate government for all of Korea, which led ultimately to the Korean War. In China, nationalist and communist forces resumed the civil war in June While European powers attempted to retain some or all of their colonial empirestheir losses of prestige and resources during the war rendered this unsuccessful, leading to decolonisation.

    The global economy suffered heavily from the war, although participating nations were affected differently. The United States emerged much richer than any other nation, leading to a baby boomand by its gross domestic product per person was much higher than that of any of the other powers, and it dominated the world economy.

    Recovery began with the mid currency reform in Western Germanyand was sped up by the liberalisation of European economic policy that the Marshall Plan — both directly and indirectly caused. The Soviet Union, despite enormous human and material losses, also experienced rapid increase in production in the immediate post-war era.

    Estimates for the total number of casualties in the war vary, because many deaths went unrecorded. The Soviet Union lost around 27 million people during the war, [] 8. General Yasuji Okamura implemented the policy in Heipei and Shantung. Axis forces employed biological and chemical weapons. The Imperial Japanese Army used a variety of such weapons during its invasion and occupation of China see Unit [] [] and in early conflicts against the Soviets. The Soviet Union was responsible for the Katyn massacre of 22, Polish officers, [] and the imprisonment or execution of thousands of political prisoners by the NKVDalong with mass civilian deportations to Siberiain the Baltic states and eastern Poland annexed by the Red Army.

    Nazi Germany extensively used forced labourers ; about 12 million Europeans from German occupied countries were abducted and used as a slave work force in German industry, agriculture and war economy. The Soviet Gulag became a de facto system of deadly camps during —43, when wartime privation and hunger caused numerous deaths of inmates, [] including foreign citizens of Poland and other countries occupied in —40 by the Soviet Union, as well as Axis POWs.

    Japanese prisoner-of-war campsmany of which were used as labour camps, also had high death rates. Afterthe number reached 10 million. Aboutof these Javanese labourers were sent to other Japanese-held areas in South East Asia, and only 52, were repatriated to Java.

    In Europe, occupation came under two forms. In Western, Northern, and Central Europe France, Norway, Denmark, the Low Countries, and the annexed portions of Czechoslovakia Germany established economic policies through which it collected roughly In the East, the intended gains of Lebensraum were never attained as fluctuating front-lines and Soviet scorched earth policies denied resources to the German invaders. In Asia, Japan termed nations under its occupation as being part of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphereessentially a Japanese hegemony which it claimed was for purposes of liberating colonised peoples.

    In Europe, before the outbreak of the war, the Allies had significant advantages in both population and economics. Inthe Western Allies United Kingdom, France, Poland and British Dominions had a 30 per cent larger population and a 30 per cent higher gross domestic product than the European Axis powers Germany and Italy ; if colonies are included, it then gives the Allies more than a advantage in population and nearly advantage in GDP.

    The United States provided about two-thirds of all the ordnance used by the Allies in terms of warships, transports, warplanes, artillery, tanks, trucks, and ammunition. Additionally, neither Germany nor Japan planned to fight a protracted war, and were not equipped to do so. Aircraft were used for reconnaissanceas fightersbombersand ground-supportand each role was advanced considerably.

    The use of the jet aircraft was pioneered and, though late introduction meant it had little impact, it led to jets becoming standard in air forces worldwide. Advances were made in nearly every aspect of naval warfaremost notably with aircraft carriers and submarines.

    Although aeronautical warfare had relatively little success at the start of the war, actions at TarantoPearl Harborand the Coral Sea established the carrier as the dominant capital ship in place of the battleship.

    The British focused development on anti-submarine weaponry and tactics, such as sonar and convoys, while Germany focused on improving its offensive capability, with designs such as the Type VII submarine and wolfpack tactics.

    The tankwhich had been used predominantly for infantry support in the First World War, had evolved into the primary weapon. Most major belligerents attempted to solve the problems of complexity and security involved in using large codebooks for cryptography by designing ciphering machines, the most well known being the German Enigma machine. Notable examples were the Allied decryption of Japanese naval codes [] and British Ultraa pioneering method for decoding Enigma benefiting from information given to the United Kingdom by the Polish Cipher Bureauwhich had been decoding early versions of Enigma before the war.

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    History of 2nd world war pdf

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    3 thoughts on “History of 2nd world war pdf”

    1. Gakazahn:

      The instability created in Europe by the First World War set the stage for another international conflict—World War II—which broke out two decades later and would prove even more devastating. Rising to power in an economically and politically unstable Germany, Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist Nazi Party rearmed the nation and signed strategic treaties with Italy and Japan to further his ambitions of world domination. Over the next six years, the conflict would take more lives and destroy more land and property around the globe than any previous war.

    2. Faeran:

      Mediterranean and Middle East. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than million people from more than 30 countries.

    3. Shaktirn:

      For we were young and we had wings. Web Design by Contact Marketing Group The large allied air forces had taken the combat fight to the air, thus reducing the casualties on the ground.

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